Linacre Quarterly February 1993, 60:1:18-46
[Edited, September 20, 1996]
(Reproduced with Permission)
1. See Etienne Gilson, Being and
Some Philosophers (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of
Mediaeval Studies, 1949); also, Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy (New York: Image Books,
2. See Dianne Nutwell Irving, Philosophical and Scientific Analysis of the Nature of
the Early Human Embryo (Doctoral dissertation:
Washington, D.C., Department of Philosophy, Georgetown
University, April 1991), pp. 267-273 (includes charts of
26 of the arguments).
3. Fr. Tom Daly, "When does a human
life begin? The search for a marker event", in Karen
Dawson and Jill Hudson (eds.), Proceedings of the
Conference: IVF: The Current Debate (Clayton,
Victoria, Australia: Monash Center for Human Bioethics,
4. Irving, Philosophical and
Scientific Analysis of the Nature of the Early Human
Embryo (1991), particularly Chap. 5..
In addition to the writers I have referenced infra,
for an non-exhaustive list of other writers who
basically argue similarly with the scientific and/or
philosophical critiques presented here include (see also
Note 15): [arranged in "rough" categories, as there is
usually substantial over-lapping]
Science: C. Ward Kischer, "A new-wave dialectic: The
reinvention of human embryology", Linacre Quarterly
(1994), 61:66-81; C. Ward Kischer, "In defense of human
development", Linacre Quarterly (1992), 59:68-75;
P. McCullagh, The Foetus As Transplant Donor:
Scientific, Social and Ethical Perspectives (New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987), 483-502; E.F. Diamond,
"Abortion? NO!", Insight (Feb. 1972) 36-41.
Philosophy: W. Quinn, "Abortion: identity and loss",
Philosophy and Public Affairs 13 (1984): 24-54;
B. Brody, "On the humanity of the fetus", in Tom
Beauchamp and LeRoy Walters, (eds.), Contemporary
Issues in Bioethics (California: Wadsworth, 1978),
229-240; R. Werner, "Abortion: the moral status of the
unknown", in Social Theory and Practice, 3
(1974): 202; R. Wertheimer, "Understanding the abortion
argument", Philosophy and Public Affairs (1971),
Science/Philosophy: Laura Palazzani, "The nature of
the human embryo: philosophical perspectives", Ethics
and Medicine (1996), 12:1:14-17; C. Ward Kischer and
D.N. Irving, The Human Development Hoax: Time To Tell
The Truth (Clinton Township, MI: Gold Leaf
Press,1995), pre-marketing edition; Antonio Puca, "Ten
years on from the Warnock Report: Is the human embryo a
'person'?", Linacre Quarterly (May 1995),
62:2:75-87; Agneta Sutton, "Ten years after the Warnock
Report: Is the human neo-conceptus a person?", Linacre Quarterly (May 1995), 62:2:63-74; A.
Zimmerman, "I began at the beginning", Linacre
Quarterly (1993), 60:86-92; A.A. Howsepian, "Who or
what are we?", Review of Metaphysics (March
1992), 45:483-502; S. Heaney, "Aquinas and the presence
of the human rational soul in the early human embryo",
The Thomist (Jan. 1992), 56:1:19-48; Anthony
Fisher, "Individuogenesis and a recent book by Fr.
Ford", Anthropotes (1991), 2:199ff; Stephen
Schwarz, The Moral Question of Abortion (Chicago:
Loyola University Press, 1990), esp. Chapters 6 and 7;
S. Schwarz and R.K. Tacelli, "Abortion and some
philosophers: A critical examination", Public Policy
Quarterly (1989), 3:81-98; T. Iglesias, "In vitro
fertilization: The major issues", Journal of Medical
Ethics 10 (1984): 32-37; J. Santamaria, "In vitro
fertilization and embryo transfer", in M.N. Brumsky,
(ed.), Proceedings of the Conference: In Vitro
Fertilization: Problems and Possibilities (Clayton,
Victoria: Monash Center for Human Bioethics, Clayton,
Vic., 1982), 48-53.
Science/Philosophy/Theology: Mark Johnson, "Quaestio
Disputata: Delayed Hominization; Reflections on some
recent Catholic claims for delayed hominization", Theological Studies (1995), 56:743-763; B. Ashley
and A. Moraczewski, "Is the biological subject of human
rights present from conception?", in P. Cataldo and A.
Moraczewski, The Fetal Tissue Issue: Medical and
Ethical Aspects (Braintree, MA: The Pope John Center
(1994), Chapter Three; B. Ashley and K. O'Rourke, Ethics of Health Care (2nd ed.)(Washington, D.C.:
Georgetown University Press, 1994), pp. 149-151; B.
Ashley, "Delayed hominization: Catholic theological
perspectives", in R.E. Smith (ed.), The Interaction
of Catholic Bioethics and Secular Society
(Braintree, MA: The Pope John Center, 1992), esp. pp.
165, 176; A. Regan, "The human conceptus and
personhood", Studia Moralis (1992), 30:97-127;
W.E. May, "Zygotes, embryos and persons", Ethics and
Medics, Part I (Oct. 1991), 16:10; G. Grisez, "When
do people begin?", Proceedings of the American
Catholic Philosophical Association (1990), 63:27-47;
T.J. O'Donnell, "A traditional Catholic's view", in P.B.
Jung and T. Shannon, Abortion & Catholicism (New
York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988), pp. 44-47;
Benedict Ashley and Kevin O'Rourke, Health Care
Ethics: A Theological Analysis (St. Louis: Catholic
Health Association, 1987, 2nd ed.), pp. 2-6, 218-233;
Jean de Siebenthal, "L'animation selon Thomas d'Aquin:
Peut-on affirmer qui l'embryon est d'abord autre chose
qu'un homme en s'appuyant sur Thomas d'Aquin?", in L'Embryon: Un Homme. Actes du Congres de Lausanne 1986
(Lausanne: Societe suisse de bioethique, 1986, 91-98);
M.A. Taylor, Human Generation in the Thought of
Thomas Aquinas: A Case Study on the Role of Biological
Fact in Theological Science (Ann Arbor: University
Microfilms International, 1982); Benedict Ashley, "A
critique of the theory of delayed hominization," in D.G.
McCarthy and A.S. Moraczewski, (eds.), An Ethical
Evaluation of Fetal Experimentation: An
Interdisciplinary Study (St. Louis: Pope John XXIII
Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, 1976),
113-133; G.C. Grisez, Abortion: The Myths, the
Realities and the Arguments (New York: Corpus Books,
(Science)/(Philosophy)/Law: D.N. Irving, amicus
curiae brief, Alexander Loce vs The State
of New Jersey (1994) (No. 93-1149); S. Heaney, "On
the legal status of the unborn", The Catholic Lawyer
33:4:305-323; J.J. Carberry and D.W. Kmiec, "How law
denies science", Human Life Review (1992),
18:4:105; G.T. Noonan, "An almost absolute value in
history", in J.T. Noonan (ed.), The Morality of
Abortion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
1970), 1-59. On related issues, several recent writers
have criticized the legal validity of Roe vs Wade: "Testimony of Douglas W. Kmiec, Professor of
Constitutional Law, University of Notre Dame, Straus
Distinguished Visiting Professor, Pepperdine University,
Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Committee
of the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives" April
22, 1996; "Testimony of Mary Ann Glendon, Learned Hand
Professor of Law, Harvard University, Before the
Subcommittee on the Constitution, Committee of the
Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives", April 22,
1996; M.A. Glendon, Abortion and Divorce in Western
Law: American Failures, European Challenges
(Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1987); C.
Crandall, "Failed predictions", First Things
(June/July 1996), pp. 62ff; C. Forsythe, "The effective
enforcement of abortion law before Roe vs Wade",
Part V: "Legal Perspectives", in Brad Stetson (ed.), The Silent Subject (Westport, CN: Praeger
Publishers, 1996); P. Cunningham and C. Forsythe, "Is
abortion the 'first right' for women?: Some consequences
of legal abortion", in J.D. Butler and D.F. Walbert, Abortion, Medicine and the Law (4th ed.) (New York:
Facts on File, Inc, 1992).
Several well-known documents
also argue for personhood at "fertilization":
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, "Instruction
on Respect for Human Life in its Origin and on the
Dignity of Procreation," [Donum vitae] reprinted
in L'Osservatore Romano (Vatican City: 16 March
1987), 3; Commonwealth of Australia, Senate Select
Committee on the Human Embryo Experimentation Bill 1985,
(Official Hansard Report), (Canberra: Commonwealth
Government Printer, 1986), 25; Parliamentary Assembly of
the Council of Europe, On the use of human embryos
and foetuses for diagnostic, therapeutic, scientific,
industrial and commercial purposes, Recommendation 1046
(1986), 1; and Davis vs Davis, 641 1
(D. Tenn. 1989).
For a non-exhaustive list of
arguments counter fertilization in addition to those
Science: H.J. Morowitz and
J.S. Trefil, The Facts of Life: Science and the
Abortion Controversy (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1992); Karen Dawson, "Fertilization and moral
status: A scientific perspective", in P. Singer, Embryo Experimentation (1990), 43-52.
Buckle, Karen Dawson and Peter Singer, "The syngamy
debate: when precisely does a human life begin?", in
Peter Singer et al (eds.), Embryo Experimentation
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 214-215.
Science/Theology: Jean Porter,
"Individuality, personal identity, and the moral status
of the preembryo: A response to Mark Johnson", Theological Studies (1995), 56:763-770; L. Cahill,
"The embryo and the fetus: New moral contexts", Theological Studies (1993), 54:124-42; Shannon and
A.B. Wolter, "Reflections on the moral status of the
pre-embryo", Theological Studies (1990),
51:603-26; C. Tauer, "The tradition of probabilism and
the moral status of the early embryo", in P.B. Jung and
T.A. Shannon (eds.), Abortion & Catholicism (New
York: The Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988), pp. 54-84;
Michael J. Coughlan, "'From the moment of
conception...': The Vatican instruction on artificial
procreation techniques", Bioethics 2(4), 1988, p.
294-316; Karl Rahner, "The problem of genetic
manipulation", in Theological Investigations 9 (New York: Herder and Herder, 1972), p. 226, n. 2; J.
Donceel, "Immediate animation and delayed hominization",
Theological Studies 31 (1970), p. 75-105.
Science/?: Clifford Grobstein,
Science and the Unborn: Choosing Human Futures (New York: Basic Books, 1988); Clifford Grobstein, "A
biological perspective on the origin of human life and
personhood", in M.W. Shaw and A.E. Doudera (eds.), Defining Human Life (Washington: Association of
University Programs in Health Administration, 1983).
British document: Dame Mary
Warnock, Report of the Committee of Inquiry into
Human Fertilization and Embryology (London: Her
Majesty's Stationary Office, 1984), esp. p. 17.
Suarez, "Hydatidiform moles and teratomas confirm the
human identity of the preimplantation embryo", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 15 (1990):
6. Carlos Bedate and Robert Cefalo,
"The zygote: to be or not be a person", Journal of
Medicine and Philosophy 14 (6), 1989: 641; Richard
McCormick, S.J., "Who or what is the preembryo?", paper
presented at the Andre E. Hellegers Lecture (Washington,
D.C., Georgetown University: May 17, 1990)
(pre-publication manuscript); see also Richard
McCormick, S.J., "Who or what is the preembryo?", Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1(1), 1991, 1;
Norman Ford, "The case against destructive embryo
research", in Proceedings of the Conference: IVF: The
Current Debate, 90-95; also Ford, When Did I
Begin? (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988);
William Wallace, "Nature and human nature as the norm in
medical ethics", in Edmund D. Pellegrino, John Langan
and John Collins Harvey, (eds.), Catholic
Perspectives on Medical Morals (Dordrecht: Kluwer
Academic Publishing, 1989), 23-53.
7. D.N. Irving, Philosophical and
Scientific Analysis of the Nature of the Early Human
Embryo (1991); note 2 supra, pp. 267-273.
8. Thomas J. Bole, III,
"Metaphysical accounts of the zygote as a person and the
veto power of facts", Journal of Medicine and
Philosophy 14 (1989): 647-653; also, "Zygotes,
souls, substances, and persons", Journal of Medicine
and Philosophy 15 (1990): 637-652.
9. Singer and Wells, in D. Gareth
Jones, "Brain birth and personal identity", Journal
of Medical Ethics 15 (1989): 175.
10. Michael Lockwood, "When does
life begin?", in Michael Lockwood, (ed.), Moral
Dilemmas in Modern Medicine (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1985), 10; also Lockwood, "Warnock
versus Powell (and Harradine): When does potentiality
count?", Bioethics 2 (3), 1988: 187-213.
11. M.C. Shea, "Embryonic life and
human life", Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (1985):
12. R.M. Hare, "When does
potentiality count? A comment on Lockwood", Bioethics
2 (3), July 1988: 214.
13. H.T. Engelhardt, The
Foundations of Bioethics (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1985), 111.
14. Peter Singer, "Technology and
procreation: How far should we go?", Technology
Review (Feb./Mar. 1985).
15. See Dianne N. Irving, "Science,
philosophy, theology - and altruism: the chorismos
and the zygon", in Hans May, Meinfried
Striegnitz, Philip Hefner (eds.), Loccumer Protokolle
(Rehburg-Loccum: Evangelische Akademie Loccum, 1996);
Etienne Gilson, Being and Some Philosophers
(Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies,
1949); Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy
(New York: Image Books, 1962); Leonard J. Eslick, "The
material substrate in Plato", in Ernan McMullin (ed.),
The Concept of Matter in Greek and Medieval
Philosophy (Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press,
1963); Frederick Wilhelmsen, Man's Knowledge of
Reality (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1956),
esp. Chaps. 2 and 3.
16. For an excellent explanation of
the difference between Boethius' and Aquinas'
definitions of a "human being" or "human person", see
Kevin Doran, "Person -- a key concept for ethics", Linacre Quarterly 56 (4), 1989, 39.
17. See J. Cottingham, R.
Stoothoff, D. Murdoch (trans.), The Philosophical
Writings of Descartes (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1989)
18. Aristotle, in his De Coelo
(1.5.271b, 9-10), in Richard McKeon (ed.), The Basic
Works of Aristotle (New York: Random House, 1941).
19. See Irving, Philosophical
and Scientific Analysis... (1991); esp. pp. 83-125,
and Chap. 5.
20. Aristotle, Categories,
in Sir David Ross, Aristotle (New York: Random
House, 1985), p. 20-21; also, Aristotle, Analytica
Posteriora 2.19, 100a 3-9, in Richard McKeon (ed.),
The Basic Works of Aristotle (New York: Random
House, 1941); for Aquinas' similar position, see: The
Division and Method of the Sciences, Q6, a.1, reply
to 1st Q, pp. 65-66; ibid., Q6, reply to 3rd Q, pp.
71-72; ibid., Q6, a.2, pp. 176-178; ibid., Q6, a.4, p.
90; ibid., Q5, a.3, p.35 (also quoted there in note 21:
In I Post. Anal. lect. 1-3, and in De Veritate
1.1); see also George Klubertanz, Introduction to the
Philosophy of Being (New York:
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1963), pp. 293-298.
21. Benjamin Lewin (ed.), Genes
III (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1987), pp.
11-13,17-19, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37, 79, 91, 93-94; also
Alan E.H. Emery, Elements of Medical Genetics
(New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1983), pp. 25, 34, 65,
22. Aristotle, Categories 5.
2a, 11-13, (McKeon, 1941), p. 9; also (Ross, 1985), p.
24; also (McKeon, 1941): Metaphysica 7.11.1036b,
3-7, p. 800; 8.1.1042a, 30-31, p. 812; even in his De
Anima (McKeon, 1941) Aristotle argues for the
composite: 2.1.412b, 6-10, p. 555 and 2.1.413a, 3-4, p.
556; for Thomas Aquinas, see his Summa Theologica,
Fathers of the English Dominican Province (trans.)
(Westminster, Md.: Christian Classics, 1981, Vol. 1):
Ia.q29,a.1,ans., ad2,3,5, p. 156; ibid., a.2, ans., p.
157; see also Kevin Doran, "Person -- a key concept for
ethics", Linacre Quarterly 56(4), 1989, p. 39.
23. Aristotle, De Anima
(McKeon, 1941): 1.4.408b, 13-15, p. 548; also, 1.4.488b,
25-26, p. 548; for Aquinas see ST Ia.q75, a.2, ad.2, p.
365; also see Frederick Wilhelmsen, Man's Knowledge
of Reality (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1956),
pp. 78-79 and 103-105.
24. Keith L. Moore, The
Developing Human (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders
Company, 1982, 3rd. ed.), pp. 14ff; also Benjamin Lewin,
Genes III (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1987),
25. K. Moore, The Developing
Human (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1982),
p. 1; W.J. Larsen, Human Embryology (New York:
Churchill Livingstone, 1993), p. 1; Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (St.
Louis, MO: Mosby, 1994), pp. 3,33-34; R. O'Rahilly and
F. Muller, Human Embryology and Teratology (New
York: Wiley-Liss, 1994), pp. 19, 23.
26. Bruce M. Carlson, Human
Embryology and Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO:
Mosby, 1994), p. 31.
27. Aristotle, Physica,
(McKeon, 1941): 1.7.191a, 15-18, pp. 232-233; also
2.3.194b, 23-35, pp. 240-241; see also, Henry B. Veatch,
Aristotle: A Contemporary Approach (Indiana:
Indiana University Press, 1974), Chaps. 2,3; for
Aquinas, see George Klubertanz, The Philosophy of
Human Nature (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,
1963), pp. 124ff; also Klubertanz (Philosophy of
Being, 1963), pp. 98-100, 116 (and Thomas Aquinas,
Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics, Bk. VIII,
lect.1, (ed.) Cathala, Nos. 1688-1689, as quoted p.
29. See Moore (1982) and Lewin
(1987), note 26 supra.
30. Irving, Philosophical and
Scientific Analysis (1991), see notes pp. 78-80.
There is a rapidly increasing volume of this kind of
work, e.g., Kollias, G; Hurst, J; deBoer, E. and
Grosveld, F. "The human beta-globulin gene contains a
downstream developmental specific enhancer", Nucleic
Acids Research 15(14) (July, 1987), 5739-47; R.K.
Humphries et al, "Transfer of human and murine
globin-gene sequences into transgenic mice", American
Journal of Human Genetics 37(2) (1985), 295-310; A.
Schnieke et al, "Introduction of the human pro alpha 1
(I) collagen gene into pro alpha 1 (I) - deficient
Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional
mouse-human hybrid type I collagen", Proceedings of
the National Academy of Science - USA 84(3) (Feb.
1987), pp. 764-8.
31. See note 27 supra.
32. pace R.M. Hare, "When
does potentially count? A comment on Lockwood", Bioethics 2(3), 1988.
33. pace Michael
Lockwood, "Warnock versus Powell (and Harradine): When
does potentiality count?", Bioethics 2(3), 1988.
34. For brevity I will designate
Aristotle's theory of substance as a composite, which is
the pre-dominant one in his Categories, Physics, the first half of the
and even in many parts of his De Anima, as
"Aristotle - proper". Aristotle's theory of substance as
form alone -- or as only the "rational" part of the
form, and the succession of souls as found predominantly
in the second half of his Metaphysics and in
parts of the De Anima, contradicts the former
theory. (See 150-page Appendix A, "Aristotle: A question
of substance", in my dissertation, Philosophical and
Scientific Analysis, pp. 296-381). There is also
some degree of contradiction in Thomas -- insofar as he
sometimes "unblushingly" follows Aristotle's theory of
separate form (see, for example, the differences between
the definition of a human being and that of a human soul
in the De Ente et Essentia in Chapter Two and
Chapter Four). Also see note 100 for come contemporary
criticisms of Aristotle's inconsistencies on
"substance". It is worth noting that for both of them
the state of human embryology and chemistry was still
rather primitive (e.g., both still held for only 4
physical elements -- air, earth, fire and water).
35. Aristotle, Physica
2.1.193b, 3-5, (McKeon, 1941), p.238.
36. Ibid., 2.2.194b, 12-14, p. 240;
see also 2.2.193b, 33-37, p. 239.
37. Aristotle, De Anima
1.5.411b, 14-18, (McKeon, 1941), p. 554.
38. Aristotle, De Anima,
1.5.411b, 24-28, (McKeon, 1941), p.554.
39. Aristotle, Metaphysica,
3.2.997b18-998a10, (McKeon, 1941), p. 721; see also
11.1.1059a34-1059b14. pp. 850-851; for Aquinas, see ST,
Ia.q.45, a.4, ad.2, p. 235.
40. Thomas Aquinas, ST, Ia.q29,
a.1, ans., ad.2,3,5, p. 156; ibid, a.2, ans., p. 157;
also ST, IIIa.q19, a.1, ad.4.2127; see also, Kevin
Doran, "Person-a key concept for ethics", Linacre
Quarterly 56(4), 1989, p.39.
41. See notes 22 and 40 supra;
also Thomas Aquinas, On being and Essence, Armand
Maurer (trans.), (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of
Mediaeval Studies, 1983), Chap. 2; also The Division
and Method of the Sciences, Armand Mauer (trans.),
(Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies,
1986), p. 14, 29, 39, 40.
42. Thomas Aquinas, ST, IIIa. q19,
a.1, ad.4.2127; see also Kevin Doran (1989), p. 39.
43. Thomas Aquinas, ST, Ia.q75,
a.4, ans., p. 366.
44. For example, Suarez, McCormick,
Ford, Wallace and Bole, infra.
45. Aristotle, De Anima,
1.5.411b, 14-18, (McKeon, 1941), p. 554; also, 1.5.411b,
24-28, p. 554; for Aquinas, see notes 41 and 39,
46. As the Thomist Klubertanz has
expressed it, the human soul, being a form, cannot be
divided. The ovum and sperm unite, "thus giving rise to
a single cell with the material disposition required for
the presence of a soul", in Klubertanz, The
Philosophy of Nature, 1953, p. 312. Also see B.
Ashley and K. O'Rourke, Ethics of Health Care: An
Introductory Textbook (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown
University Press, 1994), pp. 149-151.
47. Carlos Bedate and Robert
Cefalo, "The zygote: to be or not be a person", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14(6), 1989, p.
48. Thomas J. Bole, III,
"Metaphysical accounts of the zygote as a person and the
veto power of facts", Journal of Medicine and
Philosophy 14, 1989: 647-653; also, "Zygotes, souls,
substances, and persons", Journal of Medicine and
Philosophy 15, 1990: 637-652.
49. Benjamin Lewin (ed.), Genes
III (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983), p. 681;
also Alan E.H. Emery, Elements of Medical Genetics
(New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1983), p. 93.
50. In addition to the references
on "information cascading", see also those in note 25
51. Antoine Suarez, "Hydatidiform
moles and teratomas confirm the human identity of the
preimplantaion embryo", Journal of Medicine and
Philosophy 15, 1990, 630.
52. H. Holtzer, J. Biekl and B.
Holtzer, "Induction-dependent and lineage-dependent
models for cell-diversification are mutually exclusive",
Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175:3-11
(1985); Mavilio, F. et al, "Molecular mechanisms of
human hemoglobin switching: selective under-methylation
and expression of globin genes in embryonic, fetal and
adult erythroblasts", Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences USA 80:22:664-8 (1983); C. Hart
et al, "Homeobox gene complex on mouse chromosome II:
molecular cloning, expression in embryogenesis, and
homology to a human homeo box locus", Cell
53. Jerome Lejeune (Nobel Prize,
genetics), testimony in Davis vs Davis,
Circuit Court for Blount County, State of Tennessee at
Maryville, Tennessee, 1989; as reprinted in Martin
Palmer, A Symphony of the Pre-Born Child: Part Two
(Hagerstown, MD: NAAPC, 1989), 9-10.
54. Bedate and Cefalo (1989), p.
55. A.E. Szulmann, U. Surti, "The
syndromes of hydatidiform mole. I. Cytogenic and
morphologic correlation", American Journal of
Obstetrics and Gynecology 131:665-671 (1978); M.S.E.
Wimmers, J.V. Van der Merwe, "Chromosome studies on
early human embryos fertilized in vitro", Human
Reproduction 7:894-900 (1988). See also Suarez, note