Conscientious objection to "patriarchal norms"
Hymen restoration and 'virginity certificates' in Sweden
Bioedge, 1 March, 2014
Reproduced with permission
Informed consent and conscientious objection are easy to fulminate about,
but tricky to discuss with consistency. Take, for instance, the delicate
topic of requests for hymen restorations and virginity certificates.
Worldwide, an estimated 5,000 women were victims of honour killings in 2000.
If a young woman from a culture which sanctions honour killing approaches a
doctor, what should he or she do?
Refusal is not a popular or even, in some jurisdictions, a legal option
for doctors who are asked to refer for an abortion or to prescribe
contraception. But a request which reinforces "patriarchal norms" is
Swedish ethicists surveyed about 1,000 general practitioners and 1,000
They report in the Journal of Medical Ethics that a small majority would
agree to the woman’s request. However, a large minority, supported by the
Swedish community, insist that they would never do so. In other words,
conscientious objection to patriarchal norms is socially acceptable, even if
it involves refusing a woman’s fully informed request for a medical
. . .the political message in Sweden is that
hymen operations should be considered a non-option and that the appropriate
response to such requests should be information about the medical aspects of
sexuality and human rights and, if necessary, referral to police or social
authorities for protection. The main argument for this practice is that
Swedish society should take a stand against practices expressing control of
female sexuality. The official Swedish viewpoint hence expresses a zero
tolerance policy against patriarchal norms and values.
Opposition to these practices in Sweden is so vehement that doctors try
to dissuade women. If this fails, it is not illegal to perform them, but
they do so reluctantly and secretly.
The authors favour the pragmatic policy followed by doctors in the
Netherlands. There doctors inform women of the issues involved, but do the
procedure if they insist. This allows them to give women better health care.
article was originally published by Michael Cook and
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