David C. Blake
- In a morally fragmented society there is no good reason for ethics
committees to assume any particular point of view, yet failure to do so
compromises their ability to function in either a case-review or an
educational capacity. A casuist methodology might enable committees
to fulfill both roles.
Courtney S. Campbell
- Abstract: This article sets out a descriptive typology
of religious perspectives on legalized euthanasia - political
advocacy, individual conscience, silence, embedded opposition, and formal
public opposition - and then examines the normative basis for these
perspectives through the themes of sovereignty, stewardship, and the
self. It also explores the public relevance of these religious perspectives
for debates over legalized euthanasia, particularly in the realm of
public policy. Ironically, the moral discourse of religious traditions on
euthanasia may gain public relevance at the expense of its religious
content. Nonetheless, religious traditions can provide a context of
ultimacy and meaning to this debate, which is a condition for genuine
pluralism. A table setting out the views of various denominations with
regard to euthanasia is included.
Cavanaugh D, Raviele KM, Grimes DA.
Clinicians who provide abortions: the thinning ranks.
Letters and author reply. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Feb;81(2):318-9;
Kathleen M. Raviele, Denis Cavanaugh, David A. Grimes
- Raviele: The comments in "Clinicians who provide
abortions: The thinning ranks" (OBSTET GYNECOL 1992;80:719-23)
emphasize the reasons for fewer and fewer physicians being willing to
perform abortions as being poor pay, suboptimal working conditions, and
tedium. However, could it be that some physicians who initially
supported abortion have had a change of heart? . . .
- Cavanaugh: I have been relatively quiet on the subject of
abortion for some time, but the article by Grimes deserves a
response, even though he will have the advantage of a reply. The
Cromwellian zeal of the social engineers will apparently never be
satisfied. Not content with the performance of over 1.5 million elective
abortions a year in this country, Dr. Grimes wants more people doing
them. . . .
- Grimes: Drs. Raviele and Cavanagh raise important points,
which I understand and respect. However, given our imperfect methods of
contraception, the fallibility of couples' use of contraception, and the
incidence of prenatally diagnosed disorders, the need for safe, legal
abortion will persist. Because induced abortion is one of the most
frequently performed operations in gynecology, who would they propose to
provide this service to our patients? . . .
Goller PL, Burchfield H, Wilson R, Glenn MH, Schlais LK. Nurse Pract 1992 Oct;17(10):8-9 (Comment Letter) [Comment in: Nurse Pract. 1993
Jan;18(1):8. Nurse Pract. 1993 Mar;18(3):15-6. Comment on: Nurse Pract. 1991
Dec;16(12):7.] Readers advocate pro-conscience, not pro-choice. PMID:
Patricia L. Goller, Helen Burchfield, Rebecca Wilson, Martha H. Glenn,
Lori K. Schlais, Lynn Barnard, Susan Wysocki
- Goller, Burchfield, Wilson, Glenn, Schlais: Lynn Barnard, a spokesperson for Planned Parenthood, presented a
perspective on abortions in a letter to the editor in the December
1991 issue: they approve of abortion on demand and disapprove of
anti-abortion legislation. According to that letter, abortion on demand
is the only right position for nurse practitioners, anti-abortion laws
are wrong. Life is not that simple, nor do I think this perspective is
widely shared. . .
- Barnard: In response to Patricia L. Goller et al.'s comments
regarding the appropriatenessof pro-choice advocacy, I would like to
reiterate the closing comments of my December 1991 letter to the editor:
"Let those nurses who oppose abortion and choice dedicate their energies
to the development of a societal system that truly cares for women and
will support their decisions - no matter what they are."
- Wysocki: I am writing in response to the letter by Patricia
Goller et al.; I thought the Journal's readers would be interested in
hearing the position of tl1e National Association of Nurse Practitioners
in Reproductive Health (NANPRH) on reproductive choice.
Clinicians who provide abortions: the thinning ranks.
Obstet Gynecol 1992 Oct;80(4):719-23 [Comment in: Obstet Gynecol. 1993
Feb;81(2):318-9; discussion 319-20. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Feb;81(2):318;
discussion 319-20.] PMID: 1407901
David A. Grimes
- Access to abortion services in the United States has become
increasingly limited because of a decrease in rural hospital providers
and a growing shortage of clinicians willing to offer this service. As of
1988, 83% of United States counties had no identified provider. The
deficit in numbers of clinicians stems from the current imbalance between
incentives and disincentives. The single most powerful incentive appears
to be altruism. On the other hand, disincentives include poor pay,
frequent harassment, low prestige, suboptimal working conditions, and
tedium. In 1990 a symposium on abortion provision was held, sponsored by
the National Abortion Federation and ACOG. Among the remedies
suggested by the attendees were increasing the integration of abortion
training into the mainstream of residency education, improving the pay
and work environments for clinicians, and where feasible expanding the
capacity of physician providers by using midlevel practitioners working
under physician supervision.
Natural law as a unifying ethic. J Prof Nurs 1992 Nov-Dec;8(6):358-61 PMID: 1430657 Δ
- Abstract: Natural law asserts that there is an
objective moral order that human intelligence can understand and that
societies are bound in conscience to follow. In 1772, George Mason appealed
to natural law in denouncing a slavery statute in Virginia. This same ethic
was called on to convict Nazi war criminals of crimes against humanity in
1948. In the last decade, natural law has enjoyed a resurgence in the
medical biomedical ethics literature. It has appeared less frequently in the
nursing literature and has been summarily dismissed when it has appeared.
Only one nurse ethicist used natural law in discussing ethical issues (organ
transplantation). Although further development of this philosophy is
required, this ethic shows great promise as a guide to decision making in
Serrano GA, Garcia Casado ML. [Conscientious objection in the
matter of abortion] Rev Enferm 1992 Mar;15(163):45-6 (Editorial)[Article in Spanish] PMID: 1565971
G.A. Serrano, M.L. Garcia Casado