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Protection of Conscience Project

Service, not Servitude
Periodicals & Papers


Agostino MB, De Marinis MG, Wahlberg V. Health professionals' opinions regarding abortions and the abortion law in samples from Italy and Sweden.  Gynecol Obstet Invest 1991;31(3):125-9 PMID: 2071050

M.B. Agostino, M.G. Marinis, V. Wahlberg

  • Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the opinions of health professionals working in family planning clinics in Italy and Sweden. The comparison of two such different countries seemed of interest both to describe differences and/or similarities between the samples as well as to analyze factors that could influence professionals' opinions regarding abortion. A questionnaire was distributed to doctors, nurses and social workers in family planning clinics in Rome, Italy and in Gothenburg, Sweden. The opinions of the health professionals in the two countries investigated were similar in many respects, both regarding their attitudes to abortion as well as their considerations concerning the care offered to the woman/couple undergoing an abortion. Fifty-nine percent of the Italian sample and 68% of the Swedish sample considered abortion justifiable on the same indications as those laid down in the laws, while 36% of the Italian and 32% of the Swedish professionals considered it justifiable only on medical grounds and 5% in the Italian sample did not justify abortion at all. In both Italy and Sweden, doctors as well as nurses suggest that the preventive work should be increased and that the psychological care for women undergoing abortion has to be improved.

Agostino MB, Wahlberg V. Nursing students' attitudes towards abortion and family planning in Italy and Sweden. Scand J Caring Sci 1991;5(2):87-92 . PMID: 2047619

M.B. Agostino, V. Wahlberg

  • Abstract:  In the last two decades family life and family planning have developed in a similar way in different European countries although legal and social background factors were very different in the past. Countries like Italy and Sweden are bipolar when compared. In this study nursing students' attitudes towards abortion and family planning in Italy and Sweden are described, to identify general characteristics of students that could be of interest to compare and to identify reasons for approval and/or disapproval of abortion. Some social characteristics of the students are similar, like fathers' profession/activity. Italian nursing students are more religious. Some factual knowledge is low in both samples. The nursing student's feelings, attitudes towards abortion are expressed differently in the countries. Many Italian students believe abortion is justified only on medical grounds, Swedish students indicate psychological effects as the most likely consequence both for woman and for man.

Daniels N. Duty to treat or right to refuse? Hastings Cent Rep. 1991 Mar-Apr;21(2):36-46.    PMID: 2045281

Norman Daniels

  • By entering the medical profession, physicians have consented to accept a standard level of risk of infection.  In most instances the risk of contracting H IV does not exceed this level . . .

Kluge EH.  Fetal rights: Supreme Court tosses ball back in Parliament's court.  CMAJ 1991; 144 (9) 1154-1155

Eike-Henner Kluge

  • On Mar. 21, 1991, the Supreme Court of Canada handed down its long awaited decision in R. v. Sullivan and Lemay. . . The case is of interest to doctors, but not because it deals with midwifery and its legality in Canada - the Supreme Court decision is silent on that point. At issue was the status of the human fetus: Is a full-term human fetus that is partially born a person in the eyes of the criminal law? The court decided it is not. . .

Ugeskr Laeger 1991 Dec 2;153(49):3492-3 (Letter) [Should food in hospitals be prepared according to patients' needs or dietitians' conscience?] [Article in Danish]  PMID: 1776188


Warden J.  Euthanasia: new issue for conscience. BMJ 1991 Dec 7;303(6815):1422 (News) PMID: 11642950

John Warden

  • No sooner has the abortion debate been settled for the time being than its replacement comes into view. In the lobbies and corridors of Westminster it is the legalisation of euthanasia that has taken up the running as the issue of conscience for parliament in the 1990s. . .

Weinstein BD. When employer and employee disagree. US Pharm 1991 May;16(5):80-1 PMID: 11652258

B.D. Weinstein